Jun 232016
 

How should WA define social emotional learning?

By RAMONA HATTENDORF
Vice President, CPPS of Seattle

The Sumner School District has embraced social emotional learning and created this video for students and families. (A great example of outreach, by the way!) But just what is “social emotional learning,” and does the work in Sumner align at all with the work in Seattle, where the district is rolling out RULER? (See here, and here.)

Washington State has a Social Emotional Learning Benchmarks Workgroup to craft a shared definition and propose K-12 standards that build on the state’s early learning guidelines.

They now have a draft and are asking for feedback. Their final recommendations are due to the governor October 1. You can review the draft benchmarks here . The state workgroup wants to know what you like, dislike, think is missing, and any other comments.

There are 3 ways get involved and help to provide feedback:

1.  You Can Organize and Host a Forum : The SEL Benchmarks workgroup has created a focus group protocol that you can use to host a feedback forum for your community.   You can find everything you need to host a forum here.

2.  You Can Attend an Upcoming Community Forum : You can find out when and where they will be by checking here. (July 20 and August 17 have been reserved, but locations are still to be determined.)

3.  You Can Complete the Online Survey :  An online survey tool has been developed to facilitate more extensive stakeholder feedback.  You can find the link to the survey here. (Note: You need to review the proposed benchmarks first)

LEARN MORE: Learn about the advocacy work around social and emotional learning at SEL for Washington, www.selforwa.com.

CONNECT: There is also a social emotional learning group on Facebook where you can connect with people interested in this subject and access resources that they are sharing.

… AND MORE! You might also be interested in the whole child partnership between University of Washington Tacoma and Tacoma Public Schools (here). The University of Washington also has the 3DL Partnership (three dimensional learning) between the School of Social Work and the College of Education. Both the City of Seattle and Seattle Public Schools are partners of the 3DL group.

 June 23, 2016  Posted by on June 23, 2016 Parent Line No Responses »
Apr 212016
 
A BETTER WAY

Changes to assessments, again?


  • Some school board members think we can do better by tests. But it’s not clear if their opt-out resolution aligns with changing law
  • Federal law – What’s really required

Graduates with diplomas. Close-up of four college graduates standing in a row and holding their diplomas

By RAMONA HATTENDORF
Vice President, CPPS of Seattle

APRIL 21, 2016 – The Seattle School Board is considering a resolution to request local alternatives to state testing. It is not clear, though, if what the board is considering is anything the state can act on.

While states are free to select their own assessments, those tests must align to their state standards, and all districts in the state must use the same test, unless the U.S. Department of Education grants a waiver. It appears those waivers are intended for states that want to set up pilot programs for new statewide assessments, not for local control.

Testing 101

At the federal and state level, standardized tests are used to gauge whether or not schools are meeting students’ academic needs and, theoretically, help them track efforts to improve. States first establish their learning expectations, then use the standardized tests to measure student achievement and growth. When states have comparable data, they can identify schools that are especially successful in certain areas or with subgroups of students, or schools that need more focused support and resources.

Standardized assessments are supposed to inform continuous improvement. Whether tests currently in use provide actionable information is a point of dispute. The big summative tests that Washington uses are useful for monitoring schools, but many argue they don’t inform teaching and learning.

There is movement nationally to develop more holistic assessments of school health and student success:

  • Tacoma has a whole child initiative that tracks metrics beyond academics
  • Some states are moving into competency-based learning that require different types of assessment
  • Others are looking into using interim assessments during the school year, or adding adaptive features to measure growth, particularly of students working below and above grade level

The Smarter Balanced test that Washington uses is summative; that is, it  measures what students know at the end of the year against grade level expectations. It is also adaptive; that is, it adjusts the difficulty of questions based on student response. This last feature is supposed to give more accurate information about the test-taker, but it also requires familiarity with and access to computers.

Students take the Smarter Balanced tests in grades 3 to 8 and once in high school.

The Smarter Balanced high school exam is intended to gauge whether or not a student is on track to transition into career or college by measuring mastery of state learning standards. In contrast, AP tests that some high school students take measure mastery of specific course material for possible college credit; the SAT measures developed reasoning and is not aligned to high school curriculum; and the ACT measures general educational development in English language arts, math and science.

Can Seattle choose its own test?

When ESSA, the new federal legislation, takes effect in 2017-18, any district can choose a high school test as long as they get state approval. Choosing a separate test for grades 3-8 doesn’t appear to be an option.

In rules under consideration at the federal level, up to seven states could apply to participate in a local Innovative Assessment System Pilot, but this isn’t to accommodate local control. It is to allow states to pilot tests that are aligned to different learning models, such as competency-based ones where students advance upon mastery.

Last year, New Hampshire got a waiver to pilot alternative tests for just such a model. Some of their districts will use the Smarter Balanced test while others will pilot the competency-based test under development. But the goal is a new state test for an alternative system, not local district choice.

Seattle isn’t pursuing an alternative model, nor is the state.

Why is this an issue?

In its proposed resolution, the Seattle School Board cites implementation issues with the Smarter Balanced test, the summative nature of the test, the time it takes, and language barriers, among other issues such as low performance among certain groups of students. (If you follow the link, be sure to scroll to the end; that’s where the resolution is.)

It also cites the number of tests students are taking, though outside of the Smarter Balanced tests none of those listed are state or federal requirements; several are private tests students take for college purposes, and some like the end of course exams have been replaced by the Smarter Balanced test.

For an update on federal testing requirements and changes prompted by the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), click here.

Have something to share with the board?

You can contact the Seattle School Board members here:


A Better Way: The Charles Rolland Initiative for Public Engagement is based on the principles of dialogue and deliberation, with the intention to foster public decision making. This is part of an occasional series to give background information on current topics so families and community can engage more effectively.

 April 21, 2016  Posted by on April 21, 2016 Parent Line No Responses »
Apr 212016
 

New federal testing requirements aren’t so different after all

  • Though keep an eye on high school assessments and accommodations for ELL and special education students

sbe photoAPRIL 21, 2016 – So, what’s changing with new federal K-12 testing requirements? Not a whole lot, though there are some differences, most notably around high school assessments.

Following are highlights. Education Week has a reader-friendly cheat sheet that goes into more detail and offers context. Edutopia also has a summary.

Please note these are requirements districts need to meet to receive certain federal funds, such as Title 1, which supplements funding for low-income children.

 

FEDERAL TESTING REQUIREMENTS

Tests need to be aligned to state standards. States still set their own standards.

With state approval, districts can choose their own high school assessment.

Districts must test in reading and math, and science three times, but can test other subjects if they choose.

Results need to be reported out for gender, English-language learners, students receiving special education services, different racial groups, students who qualify for free or reduced price meals, students living in homelessness, student in foster care, and students connected to the military.

Students need to be tested in grades 3 to 8, and once in high school.

All students in the state have to take the same test in each grade, unless:

  • The district is participating in an assessment pilot
  • The district selects (with state approval) a nationally recognized high school test instead of the state exam
  • 8th-graders who are taking advanced math classes—like Algebra or Geometry—can take a test at their level, instead of the regular state math test for 8th graders

Tests don’t have to be end-of-year summative tests. They can be smaller, interim tests. They can include portfolio work.

Tests can be adaptive and include questions below grade level so schools can monitor growth. But they need to show whether the student is at grade level for the grade they are enrolled in.

As always, states can develop their own assessment system; under ESSA there is more flexibility inwhat they look like.

New, a high school option:

If the state gives the OK, then districts can choose which nationally recognized high school assessment to administer. These can include college entrance tests like the SAT or ACT, or AP college-level course tests, or International Baccalaureate tests, or the Common Core aligned PARCC or Smarter Balanced assessments.

Washington’s Smarter Balanced high school exam is intended to gauge whether or not a student is on track to transition into career or college by measuring mastery of state learning standards. In contrast, AP tests that some high school students take measure mastery of specific course material for possible college credit; the SAT measures developed reasoning and is not aligned to high school curriculum; and the ACT measures general educational development in English language arts, math and science.

It’s important to note that if Washington allows this option, all high schools in the district must use the same test. Districts must ensure that students receiving special education services or designated English language learners are given the accommodations they are entitled to. (Education Week’s cheat sheet goes into more detail.)

Important:

Districts can’t unilaterally switch the high school tests. First, they need to engage parents – give them an opportunity to provide input and explain to families how instruction might change. Then they need to request the change from the state. If a new test is adopted, they must notify parents.

Where we are in the process:

The “rulemaking” process for the new Every Student Succeeds Act isn’t final yet, but the committee charged with interpreting the details has come to some agreement. Next step is a comment phase.

To back track, as policy moves from idea to law, first legislators pass broad policy statutes and the executive – the president, governor, mayor, etc – signs them into law. But interpreting the nitty gritty details of statutes and agreeing to rules about them falls to a selected committee. The appointed “rulemaking” committee discusses and negotiates; shares proposed regulations out to public, possibly makes changes; then forwards regulations for final agency approval.

So even though the ESSA passed, what it will look like in practice is still being worked out.

 April 21, 2016  Posted by on April 21, 2016 Parent Line No Responses »
Mar 202016
 

What’s a personal pathway? (And will your student get one?)

Community meetings this week; surveys online

UPDATE: Survey has been extended into the first week of April. GREAT response in the first go-around, but we need to hear from as many parents as possible.

Starting with this year’s 7th-graders, high school graduates will need to earn 24 credits. In return, they get access to personal pathways driven by their career or college goals.

Tools for families to support their students in career and college planning:


 

Dear families,

Washington State is transitioning to new college- and career-ready graduation requirements. This could affect how students’ courses are selected, as well as daily schedules at Seattle public high schools – for instance moving to “block schedules” that alternate classes, or to a trimester schedule that allows kids to take fewer courses at a time, but more courses over an academic year.

Or changes could be as simple as adding an advisory period and making more online credit retrieval available.

ACTION THIS WEEK:

There are two community meetings scheduled for families to learn about the new requirements and potential changes for students:

  • March 24 at Ballard High School commons, 6:30-8 pm
  • March 29 at South Lake High School commons, 6:30-8 pm

ACTION BY MARCH 30 APRIL 7:

There are also two surveys – one for current high school parents, and one for current middle school parents. Links to those can be found also be found here.

WHO WILL BE AFFECTED:

For Seattle Public Schools students, changes in graduation requirements take place for the class of 2021 – or this year’s 7th-graders. But changes to high school schedules could affect older students.

Statewide, graduation requirement changes are in effect for the class of 2019, unless their district sought a waiver.

WHY NEW REQUIREMENTS?

The state is moving from 20 to 24 credit requirements to give all students the opportunity to better transition to life after high school. The increase in credits accommodates course sequences that open doors to certification programs, or more in-depth study in a particular area. For instance, allowing students to take multiple courses in an art or technical field, world language, math or science.

Students can tailor the credits into a personal pathway, based on a High School and Beyond Plan that they craft; or they can follow a default pathway that aligns to college entrance requirements.

The state has already phased in a third year of math, and a fourth year of English language arts. The additional credits making up 24 are in arts, science, and world languages – though students have the option to swap the arts and language requirements for personal pathway courses.

WHAT COULD CHANGE WITH SCHEDULING?

Currently SPS high school students have the opportunity to take at least 24 credits, but not all students do. Others attempt 24, but fail or drop a course. Some schools, such as Nathan Hale and Cleveland STEM high schools, have modified block schedules that allow students to take more classes. Other schools offer zero hour classes, and some students have access to online courses.

The district currently requires 21 credits, but some high schools require more.

In considering implementation issues, the district’s 24 Credit Graduation Requirement Task Force looked at the need for students to have in-school time for career planning and exploration, in-school help with courses or counseling, and in-school time to re-take a course, if necessary. The committee also reviewed scheduling needs for staff and components of the High School and Beyond Plan.

WHAT IS THE HIGH SCHOOL AND BEYOND PLAN?

From the State Board of Education: “The High School and Beyond Plan is a formal process designed to help students think about their future goals and how to accomplish those goals. This includes exploring interests and career options, developing a course plan for high school, and exploring opportunities to develop skills.”

The state superintendent’s office (OSPI) also offers this overview.

The plan has been a state requirement since the class of 2008, though the push to make the plan more meaningful by giving students the power to use it to craft a personal pathway is fairly new (since about 2013). Family engagement around the plan hasn’t been a priority, at either the state or local level, though recent state budgets allocated more funds for career counseling in high schools.

From the State Board of Education: “The High School and Beyond Plan must include a plan for the year after high school (WAC 180-51-066, WAC 180-51-067) It is also recommended, though not required that plans should include at least a career goal, an educational goal, a four-year course plan for high school, and identification of required assessments.”

Currently Seattle Public Schools offers neither uniform comprehensive career planning nor an online tool to help families track pathways. The state superintendent’s office has posted an online tool for educators, but there is no tool for families.

WHAT DOES THIS ALL MEAN?

Bottom line, more will be asked of kids, but in return it could potentially be easier for them to design high school course loads that are meaningful to their life plans and better prepare them for careers. Currently, Washington students graduating from four-year universities are disproportionately white, and about 50 percent of students going to 2-year colleges and technical schools need to take remediation courses, usually in math. This means it costs some students a lot more to prepare for careers.

The goal is to prepare all high school students for life success, and give them the space and support to determine what that looks like.

Depending on what happens to scheduling and budgeting, kids could have more opportunities for electives and exploration. It also potentially makes it easier to expand career and technical education options.

Ramona Hattendorf,
Vice President, CPPS of Seattle
Member, Seattle Public Schools’ 24 Credit Task Force Force (2015-16)
Governor appointee, Career Education Opportunity Task Force (2013-14)

grad req

* In Seattle Public Schools, new graduation requirements are for 2021 and beyond, due to a waiver.

 March 20, 2016  Posted by on March 20, 2016 Parent Line No Responses »
Mar 142016
 

From Seattle Public Schools:

Family survey coming soon: Update your email address and contact info now

The annual Seattle Public School Family Survey is scheduled to be distributed next month, and we encourage you to contact your child’s school to ensure your email address and contact information is up to date by March 18.

This survey provides an important opportunity to reflect on your child’s school and the district. Surveys are also administered each year to all school staff and students in grades 3 through 12.  Results from these surveys will be used to guide improvements at the school and district level. Your responses on this survey are confidential.

Because of new federal limitations on automated phone calls, the survey will not be sent by phone this year. To ensure everyone has an opportunity to respond, paper surveys will be sent to families without an email address on file and to families who do not have a contact on file who speaks English.

For more information, including results of the 2015 Family, Staff, and Student Surveys, as well as a brief video introducing the new Panorama Education survey reporting portal, please visit the “School Climate Surveys” section at www.seattleschools.org/performance. This page also includes the answers to frequently asked questions about the Family Survey. Feel free to email research@seattleschools.org if you have any additional questions.

 March 14, 2016  Posted by on March 14, 2016 Parent Line No Responses »
Mar 012016
 

Yay or nay?

sps hqSchool board directors are set to vote on anti-charter school resolution:

RESOLVED, that the Seattle School Board of Directors (1) requests that the Legislature focus on its paramount duty to amply fund K-12 educational needs first as mandated by the McCleary decision; (2) opposes charter schools and charter school legislation; and (3) disapproves of the establishment of Alternative Learning Experience (ALE) status for former charter schools when operated by non-resident school districts.

Of interest from the introduction agenda:

(Directors will hear about these items, but vote on them at a later meeting)

  • Use of isolation and restraints on students – proposed policy change
  • Preschool agreement – authorizes district to accept a city grant  to continue operations of 3 preschool classrooms and expand to 3-4 additional classrooms. Schools affected: Bailey Gatzert, Van Asselt, Original Van Asselt, Arbor Heights, Boren K-7 STEM, Highland Park, Thornton Creek
  • PTA/PTSA grants for instructional assistants at international schools (McDonald and John Stanford)
  • Various contracts for maintenance or construction, funded by the Building Excellence (BEX) or the Building, Technology and Athletics (BTA) levies. Schools affected: Magnolia Elementary; Franklin High School, Ballard High School, Roosevelt High School, Hughes Elementary, Eckstein Middle School, Lincoln High School, Wing Luke Elementary, John Muir Elementary, McGilvra Elementary, Meany Middle School

 

 

 

 

 March 1, 2016  Posted by on March 1, 2016 Parent Line No Responses »
Jan 312016
 

Join us for lunch!

Register todayFriday, April 1, 11 am – 1 pm
NW African American Museum
2300 S Massachusetts St, Seattle, WA 98144

Menu includes vegetarian, vegan and gluten-free options


Support students & transform relationships

Imagine: Trained tutors in every class. Now layer in deep and trusting relationships between parents and teachers, and diverse role models for students. Oh, and extra eyes, ears and hands ready to help just when kids need it.

You can make this happen.

Your luncheon donations benefit:

  • Parent Volunteer Mentorship, a tutor recruiting and training program and acclaimed parent-engagement model
  • A Better Way: The Charles Rolland Initiative for Public Engagement. Listen. Learn. Deliberate. Participate.

Come learn about these programs and hear from equity champion Erin Jones: Milken Educator of the Year; White House Champion of Change; and former Assistant Superintendent of Student Achievement, OSPI

Suggested donation:

  • $75 – Lunch, program and museum tour
  • $50 – Early bird registration, by March 10

Can’t attend, but want to support this work? Donate here!

Thanks so very much! Students win when we work together.


*Luncheon program starts at noon; food service starts at 11:30 am; museum exhibits open at 11 am. Be sure to leave time to network!

 

 

 January 31, 2016  Posted by on January 31, 2016 Parent Line No Responses »
Jan 192016
 

Full board meets; Dir. Blanford’s drop-in is Saturday

sps hqFrom Seattle Public Schools:

In our continuing efforts to keep the public apprised of meetings, we are sending this Weekly Meeting Schedule. As schedules do change, please refer to the website for the most up-to-date calendar items.

 

DATE TIME MEETING DESCRIPTION LOCATION ATTENDANCE
Monday, January 18, 2016 ALL DAY District Offices Closed – Holiday
Wednesday, January 20, 2016 4:15 – 8:00 PM Regular Board Meeting Auditorium, Stanford Center Open
Thursday, January 21, 2016 4:30 – 6:30 PM Board Special Meeting: Operations Committee Meeting Board Office Conference Room,

Stanford Center

Open
Saturday, January 23, 2016 10:00 – 11:30 AM District V Community Meeting (Blanford) Douglass Truth Branch Library, 2300 E Yesler Way Open

 

MATERIALS FOR 1/20 SCHOOL BOARD MEETING:

 

Regular School Board meetings are held the first and third Wednesdays of the month unless otherwise noted.  The meeting agenda plus corresponding documentation are posted online by the end of the day on the Friday prior to the School Board meeting.  When you click on an item on the agenda, note that at the end of each action report, there are additional attachments pertinent to that specific Board action. The calendar section at the end of the agenda lists upcoming meetings for the next month for Board members.  For the most current information, please see the School Board Calendar on the district’s website.

Committee meeting agendas are available here.

Seattle School Board meetings are broadcast live on the Seattle Public Schools education channel – Channel 26 on Comcast.  For a complete broadcast schedule, please refer to our IBC website Video of each Board meeting is also available via the City’s Seattle Channel, usually posted within 24 hours of the meeting.

Any questions may be directed to the School Board Office at the contact number indicated below.

Thank you,

 

Kathie Thu Pham

Board Office Administrator

Seattle Public Schools

206-252-0040

ktpham@seattleschools.org

 January 19, 2016  Posted by on January 19, 2016 Parent Line No Responses »
Jan 122016
 

School board directors Geary and Harris host drop-in community meetings this Saturday

From Seattle Public Schools:

sps hqIn our continuing efforts to keep the public apprised of meetings, we are sending this Weekly Meeting Schedule. As schedules do change, please refer to the link online for the most up-to-date calendar items.

DATE TIME MEETING DESCRIPTION LOCATION ATTENDANCE
Monday, January 11, 2016 4:30 – 6:30 PM Board Special Meeting:  Curriculum & Instruction Policy Committee Board Office Conference Room   Open to the public
Thursday, January 14, 2016 4:30 – 6:30 PM Board Special Meeting:  Audit & Finance Committee Board Office Conference Room   Open to the public
Saturday, January 16, 2016 11:00 AM – 1:00 PM

 

 

3:00 – 4:30 PM

District III Community Meeting (Director Geary)

 

 

District VI Community Meeting (Director Harris)

Montlake Branch of The Seattle Public Library, 2401 24th Ave E

 

Southwest Branch of the Seattle Public Library, 9010 35th Ave SW

  Open to the public

 

 

Open to the public

 

Regular School Board meetings are held the first and third Wednesdays of the month unless otherwise noted.  The Board meeting agenda plus corresponding documentation are posted online by the end of the day on the Friday prior to the School Board meeting.  When you click on an item on the agenda, note that at the end of each action report, there are links to additional attachments pertinent to that specific Board action. The calendar section at the end of the agenda lists upcoming meetings for the next month for Board members.  For the most current information, please see the School Board Calendar on the district’s website.

Committee meeting agendas are available here.

Seattle School Board meetings are broadcast live on the Seattle Public Schools education channel – Channel 26 on Comcast.  For a complete broadcast schedule, please refer to our IBC website.  Video of each Board meeting is also available via the City’s Seattle Channel, usually posted within 24 hours of the meeting.

Any questions may be directed to the School Board Office at the contact number indicated below.

 

Lauren Fode

Temporary Board Office Administrator

Seattle Public Schools

206-252-0040

lafode@seattleschools.org

 January 12, 2016  Posted by on January 12, 2016 Parent Line No Responses »
Dec 132015
 

Seattle Public Schools leads state in rigorous certification

From the state Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction:

OLYMPIA — Washington has the largest group of new National Board Certified Teachers (NBCTs) for the third consecutive year, according to numbers released today by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards.

A total of 329 Washington teachers achieved their certification this year. Washington ranks fourth, nationwide, in the total number of NBCTs (8,614)*.

“The National Board certification process is not easy,” said Randy Dorn, superintendent of public instruction. “It takes content knowledge and commitment to student learning. I’m proud of the work these teachers have done for their students and their profession.”

Washington by the numbers:
  • Number of new NBCTs in 2015: 329 (national rank: 1st)
  • Total number of NBCTs: 8,614 (national rank: 4th)
  • Washington has two of the top 30 school districts in the nation for the total number of NBCTs.
  • 38% (126) of new NBCTs teach in “challenging schools.”
  • 14% (8,614) of teachers are NBCTs.
  • 33% (107) of new NBCTs teach in STEM fields

Across the country, fewer teachers were certified this year because the National Board started transitioning to a new certification process in 2014. Because it can take up to three years to earn certification, the NBCTs announced this year have been using the process in place prior to 2014. The National Board for Professional Teaching Standards is making changes to the process to remove barriers to earning certification that have nothing to do with whether a teacher is accomplished.

Washington’s investment in the National Board program is critical to its success. The state’s conditional loan program helps candidates pay for the cost of certification. Loans are repaid using the bonuses teachers earn after becoming certified. Nearly half of these new NBCTs participated in the loan program and will pay back more than $320,000 into the revolving fund so that money can be made available to new candidates.

A joint effort led by the Office of the Governor, the Washington Education Association, the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction and the Center for Strengthening the Teaching Profession, as well as to broad bipartisan support in the state Legislature, has led to a rapid increase in NBCTs in Washington.

Gov. Jay Inslee acknowledged the dedication of the new NBCTs. “Congratulations to the 329 Washington teachers who earned their national board certification, one of the best-known gold standards in the teaching profession. These teachers have shown true dedication to their students and their profession, and I commend their ongoing commitment to helping our students excel.”

Top 9 school districts in Washington with new NBCTs:
  1. Seattle+ (23)
  2. Kent (18)
  3. Evergreen – Clark (17)
  4. Federal Way (16)
  5. North Thurston (11)
  6. Pasco (11)
  7. Spokane (11)
  8. Tacoma (11)
  9. Clover Park (10)

+ Seattle Public Schools ranks nationally in the top 30 districts by total number of NBCTs.

Board certification by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards requires teachers to submit a four-part portfolio and a six-exercise content and pedagogy assessment. The 10 entries document a teacher’s success in the classroom as evidenced by his or her students’ learning. The portfolio is then assessed by a national panel of peers.

In 2007, the state Legislature passed a bill that awards a $5,000 bonus to each NBCT. Teachers can receive up to an additional $5,000 bonus if they teach in “challenging” schools, which are defined as having a certain percentage of students qualify for free and reduced-price lunch (50 percent for high schools, 60 percent for middle schools and 70 percent for elementary schools).

For more information

* This number varies slightly from the number reported by the board. The Board relies on teachers to self-report and maintain their contact information. Some teachers choose not to share that information. OSPI relies on a combination S-275 personnel data and Board data, and the combination is considered to be more accurate.

 December 13, 2015  Posted by on December 13, 2015 Parent Line No Responses »